A what-if analysis (also known as a what-if scenario analysis) is a technique to explore potential options and risks. It is usually run as a mathematical analysis using a tool like a spreadsheet, for instance Microsoft Excel. The mathematical model is run multiple times with different values.
Project management is very dynamic. Risks happen very often. Frequent schedule and cost revisions are a way of life. If a task on the critical path gets delayed, the total project is delayed. How do we overcome them?. What-if scenario analysis helps to simulate the alternate actions and their impact on overall project schedule and cost.